During the autumn of 2007, the National Food Administration in Sweden arranged a two-day seminar with the title "Aspects of Risk-Benefit Assessment of Food Consumption - Directions for the Future". The seminar was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, and the objective was to provide an overview of methods that have been applied for risk-benefit assessment, and to discuss advantages and limitations of this approach in the food sector. The purpose was also to investigate the possibility to establish a common view, among the Nordic and Baltic countries, for how to proceed with work regarding risk-benefit assessment of food products. Experts from the National Food Administration and other Swedish organizations, the other Nordic countries, and the Baltic countries were present at the seminar. Invited speakers held presentations during the first day. On the second day, risk-benefit activities in the Nordic countries concerning fish consumption were presented, and organised group discussions were also held. The report summarises the different activities and discussions at the Uppsala seminar, and presents the conclusions of the meeting.